Phylodynamic Analyses of outbreaks in China, Italy, Washington State (USA), and the Diamond Princess

Phylodynamic Analyses of outbreaks in China, Italy, Washington State (USA), and the Diamond Princess

Insights on the R0, the number of cases through time, and the time of epidemic origin

Timothy G. Vaughan1,2, Sarah A. Nadeau1,2, Jérémie Sciré1,2, and Tanja Stadler1,2,*
1Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, ETH Zürich, Basel, Switzerland
2Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Switzerland
*Correspondence to be addressed to: tanja.stadler@bsse.ethz.ch

March 13th 2020

In this report, we outline phylodynamic analyses of four COVID-19 outbreaks, namely in China, Italy, Washington State (USA), and on the cruise ship Diamond Princess based on full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes downloaded from GISAID. Acknowledgements for and details of the genome sequences are given in the table at the end of this post.

In particular, we performed Bayesian phylodynamic analyses in BEAST2 [1] in order to estimate the R0, the total number of cases through time, and the time of epidemic origin for each of the four epidemic outbreaks.

Method

The Chinese outbreak is the initial outbreak giving rise to the COVID-19 pandemic. From this outbreak, there were 13 sequences collected outside of China prior to or on January 23 (the onset of quarantine in Wuhan). 5 sequences were collected in the USA, 2 in Thailand, and 1 each in Australia, Singapore, Nepal, Japan, France, and Canada. Thus the sampling procedure is “migration from China to abroad followed by sequencing”.

The Italian COVID-19 epidemic was seeded at least twice (NextStrain Situation Report 2020-03-04). One introduction of COVID-19 into Italy led to an outbreak with 35 sampled sequences as of March 11 (NextStrain). For this analysis we considered 30 of these 35 sequences: 2 sequences were collected in Italy, 20 were collected abroad but had known or suspected travel history to Italy, and 8 were Dutch sequences that also cluster in this group. Although we do not have travel history for the Dutch cases, we note that until March 3 (the date of the last Dutch sequence considered) the majority of cases in the Netherlands were people returning from Northern Italy or their close contacts (source: RIVM). For these Dutch samples, we retained only one individual from each group of identical sequences. Again, our main sampling procedure is “migration from Italy to abroad followed by sequencing”.

As of March 12, 23 sampled sequences from Washington State (USA) formed an additional epidemic cluster (NextStrain). Case-level information was not available for these sequences, so we retained only one individual from each group of identical sequences. In all we retained 10 samples for this analysis. Compared to the China and Italy outbreaks, the sampling is now done within the outbreak.

An outbreak of COVID-19 also spread among passengers on the Diamond Princess cruiseship after an infected passenger embarked on the ship. As of March 11, 19 sampled sequences were available from passengers of the ship. 18 of these samples were collected in the USA and 1 in Japan. Again, the sampling is now done within the outbreak.

The birth-death models we use to analyse these sequences assume that sequences are sampled uniformly at random from the epidemic. However, health officials might identify new cases via contact tracing from previous cases. Sequences sampled from such cases, i.e. from within the same close transmission cluster, violate our model sampling assumption. For the China and Italy outbreaks we screened media sources to identify related cases among sampled sequences. We aimed at including only cases with direct travel history to China or Italy. Thus, sampling corresponds to “migration abroad followed by sampling”, and we argue that such a sampling process results in uniform sampling of cases from the Chinese and Italian outbreaks. More recently, e.g. for the Dutch sequences in the Italy outbreak and the Washington State (USA) outbreak, we were not able to continue this approach. Instead, we used sequence identity as a proxy for close transmission cluster membership. Thus we eliminated all but one sample from each group of identical sequences. This procedure intends to ensure that we do not include multiple sequences from the same close transmission cluster, and thus to ensure that sampling was done “uniformly at random” from the infected population.

The considered sequences were all downloaded from GISAID. We aligned the sequences using the NextStrain pipeline. In accordance with the pipeline, we masked the first 130 sites, last 50 sites, and site 18529 from the alignment. We refer to the resulting alignments as the “China outbreak”, “Italy outbreak”, “Washington State (USA) outbreak”, and “Diamond Princess outbreak” alignments.

Outbreak Number of Sequences Date of last sequence Number of confirmed cases on date of last sequence
China 13 Jan. 23 571
Italy 30 Mar. 4 2’502
Washington State (USA) 10 Mar. 5 70
Diamond Princess 19 Feb. 25 691

Table 1: Information on analysed outbreaks. Confirmed case counts for China, Italy, and the Diamond Princess come from the WHO situation reports. Confirmed case counts in Washington State come from the Wikipedia page. The total number of passengers on the Diamond Princess was 3’711.

We apply the birth-death framework [2] within BEAST2 [1] to the four alignments in order to quantify R0, the time of origin of the four outbreaks, as well as the total number of cases until the time of the last sequence (these dates are available in Table 1). We also apply EpiInf [3] to the same data. This tool assumes the same birth-death model, and additionally provides estimates for the number of COVID-19 cases through time for the four outbreaks. The prior settings for both analyses are shown in Table 2. For the Diamond Princess analysis, we additionally allowed Re to vary before and after the implementation of a quarantine on February 4.

Model Parameter Prior distribution
Strict clock clock rate fixed to 5 x 10-4; 10-3
HKY kappa lognormal(1.0, 1.25)
Gamma shape Exponential(0.5)
Birth-death R0 lognormal(0.8, 0.5)
removal rate δ fixed to 365/10 per year
sampling proportion s China, Italy: Unif(0,0.05)
Washington State (USA): Unif(0,1)
Diamond Princess: Unif(19/3’711, 19/696)
time of origin China, Italy, Washington State (USA): lognormal(-2, 0.8)
Diamond Princess: Fixed to Jan. 20, 2020.

Table 2: Models and prior distributions used for the BEAST2 analyses. The birth-death model is described in [2], all other models are part of the core of BEAST2 [1]. We highlight that 1/δ is the time of an individual being infected, i.e. the sum of the exposed period and the infectious period. Sampling is assumed to coincide with removal from the infectious pool.

Results

In what follows, we display the posterior distribution for R0 (Fig. 1), the sampling proportion (Fig. 2), the total number of cases at the date of the last sample (Fig. 3), and Re after the start of the quarantine on the Diamond Princess (Fig. 4) for both a low and a high clock rate. Fig. 5 shows the estimated number of cases through time (y-axis) as well as the estimated start time of the epidemic (x-axis).

We highlight that in the case of Italy and Washington State (USA), several outbreaks caused by different introductions may be spreading. We only quantify the number of cases for the considered outbreak, but not the other outbreaks. Thus the number of cases estimated here is a lower bound for the total number of cases. Further, as a consequence, we expect the actual times of the start of the outbreaks in China, Italy, and Washington State (USA) to be at or before the times we estimate.


Figure 1: R0 for individual outbreaks, compared with the prior. In the case of the Diamond Princess, this estimate corresponds to the period before the implementation of a quarantine. The dashed vertical line shows an R0 of 1.


Figure 2: Sampling proportions for individual outbreaks. Horizontal bars represent 5%, 50% and 95% quantiles.


Figure 3: Estimated case counts until the time of the last sequence. Red diamonds indicate confirmed case counts (see Table 1). Horizontal bars represent 5%, 50% and 95% quantiles.


Figure 4: Estimated R0 aboard the Diamond Princess before the quarantine on February 4 and Re afterwards.


Figure 5: Estimated number of cases through time for the low clock rate. The red diamond is the number of confirmed cases at the time of the last sequence.

Outbreak Clock Parameter Median 95% HPD
China 5e-4 R0 2.92 [2.12, 4.03]
Case count (Jan. 23) 5’187 [505, 236’000]
1e-3 R0 3.4 [2.48, 4.68]
Case count (Jan. 23) 1’594 [350, 23’700]
Italy 5e-4 R0 2.8 [2.28, 3.47]
Case count (Mar. 4) 41’741 [4130, 1’020’000]
1e-3 R0 3.08 [2.48, 3.82]
Case count (Mar. 4) 4’249 [987, 36’300]
Washington 5e-4 R0 2.97 [2.02, 4.26]
Case count (Mar. 5) 2’545 [156, 154’000]
1e-3 R0 3.13 [1.88, 4.67]
Case count (Mar. 5) 451 [40, 10’300]
Diamond P. 5e-4 R0 (pre-quarantine) 3.53 [2.13, 5.28]
Re (post-quarantine) 2.52 [1.80, 3.32]
Case count (Feb. 25) 2’131 [678, 7’820]
1e-3 R0 (pre-quarantine) 3.03 [1.41, 5.12]
Re (post-quarantine) 2.93 [2.12, 3.82]
Case count (Feb. 25) 1’847 [672, 8’170]

Table 3. Median estimates and 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals for R0 and the number of cases at the time of the last sample.

Summary

Based on results in our previous post, we are more confident in a clock rate of 5 x 10-4 compared to a faster clock. For this clock rate, we estimate the R0 (Fig. 1) for China, Italy, and Washington State (USA) to be between 2 and 4. In particular, the distributions for R0 are estimated to be very similar. For the Diamond Princess, the R0 is estimated to be between 2 and 5 up to its quarantine, and Re is a bit lower afterwards (Fig. 4). The estimates for the number of cases are very uncertain (Fig. 3 and 5). Values between the number of confirmed cases and more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than the number of confirmed cases are plausible.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Andrew Rambaut for information on which sequences belonged to transmission clusters during the early stages of the pandemic.

We again gratefully acknowledge the Authors and the Originating and Submitting Laboratories for their sequence and metadata shared through GISAID, on which this research is based. Below is a table containing the China, Italy, Washington State (USA), and Diamond Princess outbreak sequences used for the analysis.

References

  1. Remco Bouckaert, Timothy G. Vaughan, Joelle Barido-Sottani, Sebastián Duchêne, Mathieu Fourment, Alexandra Gavryushkina, Joseph Heled, Graham Jones, Denise Kühnert, Nicola De Maio, et al. Beast 2.5: An advanced software platform for bayesian evolutionary analysis. PLoS computational biology, 15(4):e1006650, 2019.
  2. Tanja Stadler, Denise Kühnert, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, and Alexei J. Drummond. Birth–death skyline plot reveals temporal changes of epidemic spread in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(1):228–233, 2013.
  3. Timothy G. Vaughan, Gabriel E. Leventhal, David A. Rasmussen, Alexei J. Drummond, David Welch, and Tanja Stadler. Estimating Epidemic Incidence and Prevalence from Genomic Data. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 36(8):1804–1816
Click to show sequence information and acknowledgements table

Epidemic Virus name Accession ID Collection date Location Originating lab Submitting lab Authors
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA-UW19/2020 EPI_ISL_414367 2020-03-05 North America / USA / Washington UW Virology Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA17-UW13/2020 EPI_ISL_413652 2020-03-05 North America / USA / Washington UW Virology Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA-UW15/2020 EPI_ISL_414363 2020-03-04 North America / USA / Washington UW Virology Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA12-UW8/2020 EPI_ISL_413563 2020-03-03 North America / USA / Washington UW Virology Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA11-UW7/2020 EPI_ISL_413562 2020-03-02 North America / USA / Washington UW Virology Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA7-UW4/2020 EPI_ISL_413458 2020-03-01 North America / USA / Washington Washington State Public Health Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Arun Nalla, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA8-UW5/2020 EPI_ISL_413486 2020-03-01 North America / USA / Washington Valley Medical Center University of Washington Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Arun Nalla, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA9-UW6/2020 EPI_ISL_413487 2020-03-01 North America / USA / Washington Harborview Medical Center University of Washington Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Arun Nalla, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA6-UW3/2020 EPI_ISL_413457 2020-02-29 North America / USA / Washington Washington State Public Health Lab UW Virology Lab Pavitra Roychoudhury, Arun Nalla, Hong Xie, Keith Jerome, Alexander Greninger
Washington State hCoV-19/USA/WA2/2020 EPI_ISL_412970 2020-02-24 North America / USA / Washington / Snohomish County Washington State Department of Health Seattle Flu Study Helen Chu, Michael Boeckh, Janet Englund, Michael Famulare, Barry Lutz, Deborah Nickerson, Mark Rieder, Lea Starita, Matthew Thompson, Jay Shendure, and Trevor Bedford
China hCoV-19/Canada/ON-VIDO-01/2020 EPI_ISL_413015 2020-01-23 North America / Canada / Ontario Public Health Ontario Laboratory National Microbiology Laboratory Shari Tyson, Anna Majer, Erika Landry, Morag Graham, Grace Seo, Philip Mabon, Natalie Knox, Adrian Zetner, Samira Mubareka, Rob Kozak, Jocelyne Lew, Darryl Falzarano, Gerdts Volker, Jonathan Gubbay, Stephanie Booth, Guillaume Poliquin, Tom Graefenhan, Matthew Gilmour, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li, Timothy Booth
China hCoV-19/France/IDF0373/2020 EPI_ISL_406597 2020-01-23 Europe / France / Ile-de-France / Paris Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris National Reference Center for Viruses of Respiratory Infections, Institut Pasteur, Paris Mélanie Albert, Marion Barbet, Sylvie Behillil, Méline Bizard, Angela Brisebarre, Flora Donati, Vincent Enouf, Maud Vanpeene, Sylvie van der Werf, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Xavier Lescure.
China hCoV-19/Japan/OS-20-07-1/2020 EPI_ISL_410532 2020-01-23 Asia / Japan / Osaka Dept. of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Harutaka Katano, Shutoku Matsuyama, Naganori Nao, Kazuya Shirato, Motoi Suzuki, Hideki Hasegawa, Takaji Wakita, Makoto Takeda, Tadaki Suzuki, Makoto Kuroda
China hCoV-19/Nepal/61/2020 EPI_ISL_410301 2020-01-13 Asia / Nepal / Kathmandu National Influenza Centre, National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, Nepal The University of Hong Kong Ranjit Sah , Runa Jha, Daniel Chu, Haogao Gu, Malik Peiris, Anup Bastola, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Bibek Kumar Lal, Basu Dev Pandey, Leo Poon
China hCoV-19/Nonthaburi/61/2020 EPI_ISL_403962 2020-01-08 Asia / Thailand / Nonthaburi Bamrasnaradura Hospital 1. Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand 2. Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases - Health Science Centre 3. Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand Pilailuk,Okada; Siripaporn,Phuygun; Thanutsapa,Thanadachakul; Supaporn,Wacharapluesadee; Sittiporn,Parnmen; Warawan,Wongboot; Sunthareeya,Waicharoen; Rome,Buathong; Malinee,Chittaganpitch; Nanthawan,Mekha
China hCoV-19/Nonthaburi/74/2020 EPI_ISL_403963 2020-01-13 Asia / Thailand / Nonthaburi Bamrasnaradura Hospital 1. Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand 2. Thai Red Cross Emerging Infectious Diseases - Health Science Centre 3. Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand Pilailuk,Okada; Siripaporn,Phuygun; Thanutsapa,Thanadachakul; Supaporn,Wacharapluesadee; Sittiporn,Parnmen; Warawan,Wongboot; Sunthareeya,Waicharoen; Rome,Buathong; Malinee,Chittaganpitch; Nanthawan,Mekha
China hCoV-19/Singapore/1/2020 EPI_ISL_406973 2020-01-23 Asia / Singapore Singapore General Hospital National Public Health Laboratory Mak, TM; Octavia S; Chavatte JM; Zhou, ZY; Cui, L; Lin, RTP
China hCoV-19/Sydney/2/2020 EPI_ISL_408976 2020-01-22 Oceania / Australia / New South Wales / Sydney Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services NSW Health Pathology - Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research; Westmead Hospital; University of Sydney Rockett R, Sadsad R, Eden J-S, Carter I, Rahman H, Holmes EC, O’Sullivan MV, Sintchenko V, Chen SC, Maddocks S, Kok J and Dwyer DE for the 2019-nCoV Study Group*
China hCoV-19/USA/AZ1/2020 EPI_ISL_406223 2020-01-22 North America / USA / Arizona / Phoenix Arizona Department of Health Services Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Yan Li, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
China hCoV-19/USA/CA1/2020 EPI_ISL_406034 2020-01-23 North America / USA / California / Los Angeles California Department of Public Health Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Krista Queen, Ying Tao, Yan Li, Clinton R. Paden, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
China hCoV-19/USA/CA2/2020 EPI_ISL_406036 2020-01-22 North America / USA / California / Orange County California Department of Public Health Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Krista Queen, Ying Tao, Yan Li, Clinton R. Paden, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
China hCoV-19/USA/IL1/2020 EPI_ISL_404253 2020-01-21 North America / USA / Illinois / Chicago IL Department of Public Health Chicago Laboratory Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Clinton R. Paden, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Anna Uehara, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
China hCoV-19/USA/WA1/2020 EPI_ISL_404895 2020-01-19 North America / USA / Washington / Snohomish County Providence Regional Medical Center Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Queen,K., Tao,Y., Li,Y., Paden,C.R., Lu,X., Zhang,J., Gerber,S.I., Lindstrom,S., Tong,S.
Italy hCoV-19/Brazil/SPBR-01/2020 EPI_ISL_412964 2020-02-25 South America / Brazil / Sao Paulo / Sao Paulo Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein Instituto Adolfo Lutz Interdisciplinary Procedures Center Strategic Laboratory Jaqueline Goes de Jesus, Claudio Tavares Sacchi, Daniela Bernardes Borges da Silva, Ingra Morales Claro, Flávia Cristina da Silva Sales, Claudia Regina Gonçalves, Joshua Quick, Maria do Carmo, Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Nicholas James Loman, Andrew Rambaut, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Nuno Rodrigues Faria
Italy hCoV-19/Finland/FIN-25/2020 EPI_ISL_412971 2020-02-25 Europe / Finland / Helsinki HUS Diagnostiikkakeskus, Hallinto Department of Virology Faculty of Medicine, Medicum University of Helsinki Teemu Smura, Suvi Kuivanen, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Olli Vapalahti
Italy hCoV-19/Finland/FIN03032020A/2020 EPI_ISL_413602 2020-03-03 Europe / Finland / Helsinki Department of Virology and Immunology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Huslab Finland Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Teemu Smura, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Olli Vapalahti
Italy hCoV-19/Finland/FIN03032020C/2020 EPI_ISL_413604 2020-03-03 Europe / Finland / Helsinki Department of Virology and Immunology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Huslab Finland Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Teemu Smura, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Olli Vapalahti
Italy hCoV-19/Germany/Baden-Wuerttemberg-1/2020 EPI_ISL_412912 2020-02-25 Europe / Germany / Baden-Wuerttemberg State Health Office Baden-Wuerttemberg Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Virology Victor M Corman, Julia Schneider, Barbara Mühlemann, Talitha Veith, Jörn Beheim-Schwarzbach, Terry Jones, Rainer Oehme, Silke Fischer, Christian Drosten
Italy hCoV-19/Italy/CDG1/2020 EPI_ISL_412973 2020-02-20 Europe / Italy / Lombardy Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma , Italy Virology Laboratory, Scientific Department, Army Medical Center Paola Stefanelli, Stefano Fiore, Antonella Marchi, Eleonora Benedetti, Concetta Fabiani, Giovanni Faggioni, Antonella Fortunato, Riccardo De Santis, Silvia Fillo, Anna Anselmo, Andrea Ciammaruconi, Stefano Palomba, Florigio Lista
Italy hCoV-19/Italy/UniSR1/2020 EPI_ISL_413489 2020-03-03 Europe / Italy / Lombardy / Milan Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milano R.A Diotti, E. Criscuolo, M. Castelli, V. Caputo, R. Ferrarese, M. Sampaolo, E. Boeri, I. Negri, V. Amato, G. Lo Raso, C. Di Resta, R. Burioni, M. Clementi, N. Mancini & N. Clementi
Italy hCoV-19/Luxembourg/Lux1/2020 EPI_ISL_413593 2020-02-29 Europe / Luxembourg Laboratoire National de Santé Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, T. Abdelrahman, G. Fournier, J. Mossong, T. Nguyen, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Mexico/CDMX/InDRE_01/2020 EPI_ISL_412972 2020-02-27 North America / Mexico / Mexico City Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Instituto de Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos (INDRE) Ramirez-Gonzalez Ernesto, Garces-Ayala Fabiola, Araiza-Rodriguez Adnan, Mendieta-Condado Edgar, Rodriguez-Maldonado Abril, Wong-Arambula Claudia, Vazquez-Perez Joel, Martinez Arturo, Boukadida Celia, Munoz-Medina Esteban, Sanchez Alejandro, Isa Pavel, Taboada Blanca, Lopez Susana, Arias Carlos, Barrera-Badillo Gisela, Hernandez-Rivas Lucia, Lopez-Martinez Irma
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Berlicum_1363564/2020 EPI_ISL_413565 2020-02-24 Europe / Netherlands / Berlicum Foundation Pamm Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Delft_1363424/2020 EPI_ISL_413569 2020-02-28 Europe / Netherlands / Delft RIVM Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Diemen_1363454/2020 EPI_ISL_413570 2020-02-28 Europe / Netherlands / Diemen RIVM Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Eindhoven_1363782/2020 EPI_ISL_413571 2020-03-02 Europe / Netherlands / Eindhoven MHC Brabant Zuidoost Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Haarlem_1363688/2020 EPI_ISL_413572 2020-03-01 Europe / Netherlands / Haarlem MHC Kennemerland Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Helmond_1363548/2020 EPI_ISL_413574 2020-02-29 Europe / Netherlands / Helmond MHC West-Brabant Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Tilburg_1364286/2020 EPI_ISL_413587 2020-03-03 Europe / Netherlands / Tilburg Foundation Elisabeth-Tweesteden Ziekenhuis Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Utrecht_1363564/2020 EPI_ISL_413588 2020-03-01 Europe / Netherlands / Utrecht MHC Utrecht Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Netherlands/Zeewolde_1365080/2020 EPI_ISL_413591 2020-03-02 Europe / Netherlands / Zeewolde MHC Flevoland Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/NetherlandsL/Houten_1363498/2020 EPI_ISL_413575 2020-02-29 Europe / Netherlands / Houten RIVM Erasmus Medical Center David Nieuwenhuijse, Bas Oude Munnink, Reina Sikkema, Claudia Schapendonk, Irina Chestakova, Anne van der Linden, Mark Pronk, Pascal Lexmond, Corien Swaan, Manon Haverkate, Madelief Mollers, Mart Stein, Sandra Kengne Kamga Mobou, Jeroen van Kampen, Jolanda Voermans, Aura Timen, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek van der Eijk, Richard Molenkamp, Marion Koopmans, on behalf of the Dutch national COVID-19 response team.
Italy hCoV-19/Nigeria/Lagos01/2020 EPI_ISL_413550 2020-02-27 Africa / Nigeria / Lagos Centre for Human and Zoonotic Virology (CHAZVY), College of Medicine University of Lagos/Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), part of the Laboratory Network of the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) African Centre of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Diseases (ACEGID), Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria Oluniyi P.E., Ajogbasile F.V., Kayode A., Oguzie J., Folarin O.A., Ihekweazu C. Happi C.T.
Italy hCoV-19/Portugal/CV62/2020 EPI_ISL_413647 2020-03-01 Europe / Portugal Centro Hospital do Porto, E.P.E. - H. Geral de Santo Antonio Instituto Nacional de Saude (INSA) Raquel Guiomar, Inês Costa, Pedro Pechirra, Joana Mendonça, Luís Vieira, Helena Ramos, Joana Isidro, Vítor Borges, João Paulo Gomes
Italy hCoV-19/Scotland/CVR01/2020 EPI_ISL_413221 2020-03-02 Europe / United Kingdom / Scotland West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, NHSGGC MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research Emma Thomson, Antonia Ho; James Shephard, Shirin Ashraf; Kathy Smollett, Daniel Mair, Stephen Carmichael, Ana da Silva Filipe; Richard Orton, Josh Singer, David L Robertson; Andrew Rambaut; Alasdair MacLean, Rory Gunson.
Italy hCoV-19/Switzerland/1000477377/2020 EPI_ISL_413020 2020-02-27 Europe / Switzerland / Zurich Department of Internal Medicine, Triemli Hospital Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich Stefan Schmutz, Maryam Zaheri, Verena Kufner, Patrick Redli, Fiona Steiner, Jon Huder, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Michael Huber, Gerhard Eich, Alexandra Trkola
Italy hCoV-19/Switzerland/1000477757/2020 EPI_ISL_413021 2020-02-29 Europe / Switzerland / Zurich Klinik Hirslanden Zurich Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich Stefan Schmutz, Maryam Zaheri, Verena Kufner, Gabriela Ziltener, Patrick Redli, Fiona Steiner, Jon Huder, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Michael Huber, Christian Ruef, Alexandra Trkola
Italy hCoV-19/Switzerland/1000477796/2020 EPI_ISL_413022 2020-02-29 Europe / Switzerland / Zurich Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Zurich Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich Stefan Schmutz, Maryam Zaheri, Verena Kufner, Gabriela Ziltener, Patrick Redli, Fiona Steiner, Jon Huder, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Michael Huber, Roberto Speck, Alexandra Trkola
Italy hCoV-19/Switzerland/1000477797/2020 EPI_ISL_413023 2020-02-29 Europe / Switzerland / Zurich Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Zurich Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich Stefan Schmutz, Maryam Zaheri, Verena Kufner, Gabriela Ziltener, Patrick Redli, Fiona Steiner, Jon Huder, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Michael Huber, Roberto Speck, Alexandra Trkola
Italy hCoV-19/Switzerland/1000477806/2020 EPI_ISL_413024 2020-02-29 Europe / Switzerland / Zurich Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Zurich Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich Stefan Schmutz, Maryam Zaheri, Verena Kufner, Gabriela Ziltener, Patrick Redli, Fiona Steiner, Jon Huder, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Michael Huber, Roberto Speck, Alexandra Trkola
Italy hCoV-19/Taiwan/NTU03/2020 EPI_ISL_413592 2020-03-02 Asia / Taiwan / Taipei Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Microbial Genomics Core Lab, National Taiwan University Centers of Genomic and Precision Medicine Shiou-Hwei Yeh, You-Yu Lin, Ya-Yun Lai, Chiao-Ling Li, Shan-Chwen Chang, Pei-Jer Chen, Sui-Yuan Chang
Italy hCoV-19/Wales/PHW1/2020 EPI_ISL_413555 2020-02-27 Europe / United Kingdom / Wales Wales Specialist Virology Centre Public Health Wales Microbiology Cardiff Catherine Moore, Cen Sabu, Joanne Watkins, Sally Corden, Tom Connor
Italy hCoV-19/Wales/PHW2/2020 EPI_ISL_413556 2020-03-04 Europe / United Kingdom / Wales Wales Specialist Virology Centre Public Health Wales Microbiology Cardiff Catherine Moore, Tim Jones, Joanne Watkins, Sally Corden, Tom Connor
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/Japan/TK/20-31-3/2020 EPI_ISL_413459 2020-02-20 Asia / Japan / Tokyo Department of Pathology, Toshima Hospital Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Kentaro Itokawa, Takuya Adachi, Masahiro Sano, Jun Yamazaki, Ippei Miyamoto, Haruka Nishioka, Ja-Mun Chong, Noriko Nakajima, Yuko Sato, Minoru Tobiume, Harutaka Katano, Tadaki Suzuki, Makoto Kuroda
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-1/2020 EPI_ISL_413606 2020-02-17 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Mary S. Keckler, Alison S Laufer Halpin, Haibin Wang, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Christopher A. Elkins, Susan I. Gerber, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-10/2020 EPI_ISL_413615 2020-02-17 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-11/2020 EPI_ISL_413616 2020-02-17 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-12/2020 EPI_ISL_413617 2020-02-20 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-13/2020 EPI_ISL_413618 2020-02-20 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Clinton R. Paden, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-14/2020 EPI_ISL_413619 2020-02-25 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Clinton R. Paden, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-15/2020 EPI_ISL_413620 2020-02-18 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Clinton R. Paden, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-16/2020 EPI_ISL_413621 2020-02-18 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Clinton R. Paden, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-17/2020 EPI_ISL_413622 2020-02-24 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Clinton R. Paden, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-18/2020 EPI_ISL_413623 2020-02-24 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Clinton R. Paden, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-2/2020 EPI_ISL_413607 2020-02-18 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Mary S. Keckler, Alison S Laufer Halpin, Haibin Wang, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Christopher A. Elkins, Susan I. Gerber, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-3/2020 EPI_ISL_413608 2020-02-18 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Mary S. Keckler, Alison S Laufer Halpin, Haibin Wang, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Christopher A. Elkins, Susan I. Gerber, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-4/2020 EPI_ISL_413609 2020-02-21 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Mary S. Keckler, Alison S Laufer Halpin, Haibin Wang, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Christopher A. Elkins, Susan I. Gerber, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-5/2020 EPI_ISL_413610 2020-02-21 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Mary S. Keckler, Alison S Laufer Halpin, Haibin Wang, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Christopher A. Elkins, Susan I. Gerber, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-6/2020 EPI_ISL_413611 2020-02-21 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Anna Uehara, Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Mary S. Keckler, Alison S Laufer Halpin, Haibin Wang, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Christopher A. Elkins, Susan I. Gerber, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-7/2020 EPI_ISL_413612 2020-02-17 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-8/2020 EPI_ISL_413613 2020-02-17 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong
Diamond Princess hCoV-19/USA/CruiseA-9/2020 EPI_ISL_413614 2020-02-17 North America / USA unknown Pathogen Discovery, Respiratory Viruses Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Dieases Control and Prevention Ying Tao, Clinton R. Paden, Krista Queen, Anna Uehara, Jing Zhang, Yan Li, Haibin Wang, Shifaq Kamili, Xiaoyan Lu, Brian Lynch, Senthil Kumar K. Sakthivel, Brett L. Whitaker, Lijuan Wang, Janna’ R. Murray, Jasmine Padilla, Justin Lee, Susan I. Gerber, Stephen Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong